In the history of chess, "mad queen chess," sometimes shortened to just "queen chess," refers to any form of chess played since the dramatic expansion of the queen's movement that occurred in the late 1400s. Modern-day chess is a subtype of mad queen chess.

Prior to this change, a queen, previous known as a "vizier," was an extremely weak piece which could only move one square diagonally. After the advent of mad queen chess, the queen became the strongest piece, and could move any number of squares vertically, horizontally, and diagonally, and in some places (such as Russia), could even move like a knight as well, thus aggregating all the different types of moves into a single piece.

The term "mad queen chess" comes from contemporary terms for this type of chess in the late 1400s and early 1500s, such as échecs de la dame enragée ("enraged queen's chess") in French and scacchi alla rabiosa ("angry woman's chess") in Italian.