Commonly known as aspirin and is an effective analgesic (pain-reliever), antipyretic (fever-reducer), and anti-inflammatory agent.

The medicinal properties of willow bark had been known in some cultures for centuries when, In the 19th century, the active ingredient was found to be a combination of glucose and salicylic alcohol. Based on these and other observations, as well as advances in chemical synthesis, aspirin became available in mid-century after being prepared by Hoffman, a chemist employed by Bayer. More modern investigations have established that the medicinal properties of aspirin derive largely from its ability to irreversibly inhibit an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, which is required for the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes.