First mentioned in 975, declared a town in 1254. The intellectual centre of Germany during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when both Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich von Schiller lived here. Located in the state of Thuringia, eastern Germany, and the constitution of the Weimar Republic was written here after the revolution of 1918. Sights include several monuments of Goethe, the homes of Franz Liszt and F. Schiller and several other reminders of Weimars period as an intellectual centre.
On a personal note, I once ate a bratwurst sprinkled in beer beneath a bronze monument of Goethe in Weimar during a brief visit to Germany in 1994, when eastern Germany was still being rebuilt after the reunion. I later have felt that this combination was as close to experiencing German culture as I have ever been. (That is not intended to be derogatory on German culture, which I know is more that beer, bratwurst and Goethe, but a personal experience.)