original Gettier problem:
Suppose that Smith and Jones
have applied for a certain job. And suppose that Smith has strong evidence
for the following conjunctive proposition:
d. Jones is the man who will get the job, and Jones has ten coins in his pocket.
Smith's evidence for (d) might be that the president of the company assured him that Jones would in the end be selected, and that he, Smith, had counted the coins in Jones's pocket ten minutes ago. Proposition (d) entails:
e. The man who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket.
Let us suppose that Smith sees the entailment from (d) to (e), and accepts (e) on the grounds of (d), for which he has strong evidence. In this case, Smith is clearly justified in believing that (e) is true.
But imagine, further, that unknown to Smith, he himself, not Jones, will get the job. And, also, unknown to Smith, he himself has ten coins in his pocket. Proposition (e) is then true, though proposition (d), from which Smith inferred (e), is false. In our example, then, all of the following are true: (i) (e) is true, (ii) Smith believes that (e) is true, and (iii) Smith is justified in believing that (e) is true. But it is equally clear that Smith does not know that (e) is true; for (e) is true in virtue of the number of coins in Smith's pocket, while Smith does not know how many coins are in Smith's pocket, and bases his belief in (e) on a count of the coins in Jones's pocket, whom he falsely believes to be the man who will get the job.
for "Is Justified True belief Knowledge
?" Edmund Gettier
my own example:
Father is working on the roof one day when walking past his daughter Sally's window he sees her with a sack of weed
and a joint
. Sally sees him in the window and rushes to hide the contraband. Her father logically assumes that she has been doing drugs
. In reality, Sally found the sack in her brother Jimmy's room and had merely taken it back to her room to decide what she was going to do in light of her discovery. That night father calls a family meeting and announces, "Someone in this family has been using drugs." This belief is justified and true.