Afghan ruler. Born c. 1793, died 1863.

Taking control of Kabul in 1826, Dost Muhammad proclaimed himself Amir(emir) of Afghanistan in 1835.

Caught between rival interests (Sikhs in Peshawar, Russians to the north, and British to the south), Dost Muhammad Khan tried to cut a deal with the British. What followed was an example of faulty understanding on both sides.

The British, viewing Dost Muhammad as unreliable, expelled him from Kabul in 1839, replacing him with Shah Shujah. This incident touched off the First Anglo-Afghan War, which ended in 1842 with a catastrophic British defeat and the total rout of the British forces. In 1843, Dost Muhammad was able to retake Kabul.

Despite their earlier differences, Dost Muhammad and the British decided to let bygones be bygones. In 1857, a treaty was signed, and the remainder of Dost Muhammad's years were peaceful.

When Dost Muhammad died, in 1863, he was (not very peacefully, at all) succeeded by his third son, Sher Ali.