lived from 1157-1199

According to legend, Richard the Lion-hearted was a gallant and famed Norman King of England. His most notable deed was that he went with his loyal compatriots to do battle in the Holy Land in the Third Crusade with the hope of capturing Jerusalem. He failed (of course), and during his return was captured and held for ransom by the Duke of Austria.

When he returned, his brother, Prince John, had ursurped his throne, and the historical novel Ivanhoe is some fiction about that business.

Later on, when warring against Phillip II of France, Richard was mortally wounded by an arrow.

Though he was supposed to be a really great tactician, he was ineffectual in his military campaigns overall. Furthermore, because he spent so much time outside of England fighting and getting kidnapped, he has been referred to as "The Absent King" (supposedly, he spent all of six months during his entire reign there).