Based on bones and folk tales of the Anasazi, Zuni, and Hopi cultures, archaeologist Andrew Darling argues that "corpse poundings" were from witch executions. There is evidence of smashed skulls with missing brains, as well as broken bones - some with the marrow removed. The body had to be destroyed so the witch could not return to it, and this was done by rocks, mutilation, and just a general cutting sort of thing. Some of the poundings took pace at kivas, or ritual houses.