One child per family is the birth control policy of the People's Republic of China. This is enforced rather strictly in the urban areas, but rather loosely in the rural areas, which account for a good portion of the country.

The reason that this is needed is because there was a huge upsurge of population when Mao was in power because Mao encouraged people to have as many kids as possible. Like zealots, the people obeyed. So now we have too many people. To remedy this, the rate of growth of the population must be cut down as close to 0 as possible.

The enforcement of this policy ranges from harassment from your neighbors, neighborhood association, to forced abortions, to stories of killing newborn babies by lethal injection post-partum.

As a consequence of this policy, children born of the newer generations don’t have brothers and sisters. They are then spoiled by their families and grow up to be selfish individuals. Also, eventually there will be only 1 child to support a pair of parents, who then support two pairs of grandparents. With life expectancy increasing all the time, this could cause a lot of problems.