Sure, give me all the complex international conflicts... grr...

In 1931, Spain reached the end of its more than four hundred year old monarchy and the begining of a new Spanish republic. A moderate legislature under a President Azana was elected, and all seemed to be well. Unfortunetly, in 1933, when the next elections came about, the communists refused to ally with other left wing parties in any sort of coaltion, and, in doing so, handed the elections to the radical right, made up mostly of those that supported the Catholic Church and the rich. In 1934, the new government's backward policies led to massive striking by the left and in 1936 a radical left government was elected that attempted to institute what was at least socialism, and probably would have evolved into soviet style communism. Fortunitly, (or perhaps, unfortunitly, depending on what evils you least dislike) General Francisco Franco used the army to back the right - they made up the Nationalists, while those that opposed him became the Rebublicans.

So far this has been simplified signifigantly. The complications come when you realise the sheer number of factions that were a part of this war: Communists, Socialists, Anarchists, and Basque and Catalonia seperatists on the Rebulican side alone. Not to mention the fact that Adolf Hitler aided the Nationalists, and Stalin backed the Rebulicans along with many, many volunteers from Western states. The war is often seen as a precursor for World War II.

After bloody, bloody war Franco wins and institutes a repressive totalitarian regime that lasts into the 1980s. However Spain is destroyed, to the point to which it can not aid the Axis during WWII.