Uses an electric arc to create welding heat.
A welder of the same basic type as a mig welder, but generally classified as being different, due to the different applications, and more general term.
Uses flux coated steel (or some other metal) rods of various types for different welding applications. Makes some of the best welds on heavy gauge steels and cast iron. Cutting rods can make clean holes through thick stock, and are about the only thing which can cut Kryptonite bike locks. Very difficult to weld thin metals without vaporizing them completely. You can also get a carbon arc torch to use on an arc welder to braze with, but it's a better idea to just learn how to braze. Eastwood's "stitch" welder is an apparatus used with an arc welder to move the rod in and out, which may help when welding thinner stock.

Welding is in and of itself an art form. I have much respect for people who can weld decently.