Philosophical Transactions, Giving Some Accompt of the Present Undertakings, Studies, and Labours, of the Ingenious, in many Considerable Parts of the World, shortened to Philosophical Transactions, is the oldest scientific journal in continuous publication. It inaugurated a new system of peer review among scientists based on periodic publications, allowing scientific discussion to progress at a much faster pace than the previous system of publishing full-length books. It was the dawn of "release early, release often" for the sciences.

Among the people featured on its pages in the early years were Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and Michael Faraday.

The first edition was published in 1665 by the Royal Society's Henry Oldenburg as a collection of correspondence with some of Europe's scientists. The Society took over publication some years later, and has been publishing it ever since.

It is published today in two editions, one specialized in Biology and the other in Physics.

Some of the 18th century editions are available at the Internet Library of Early Journals ( and make for an interesting read. There are articles in Latin, but most of the archive is in "Englifh."