This is an attempt to provide a measure of protection for civilians during time of war, primarily those who are living in their homes. It also involves the protection of public property and the property of those at the front.

Clearly the measures taken must depend on the circumstances and technology involved. In England during World War II bomb shelters were built and the civilian population was organized to make use of them. Fire brigades were organized as well.

During the cold war in the United States fallout shelters were built and the population was educated - or miseducated - in the dangers of nuclear war. Some of the problems with this civil defense effort were documented in The Atomic Cafe. See also Duck and cover!