Nephrotoxicity is literally kidney toxicity. Many substances, including drugs, exhibit nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxins can cause kidney damage and failure. Typically an overdose or poisoning with a nephrotoxic substance is treated by removing the substance at source, for example by lavage, inducing vomiting, or by removing the substance from its toxic range by diluting or buffering it with an intravenous infusion.

Extreme cases of poisoning may be treated with dialysis.

Common substances which are nephrotoxic include brake fluid and common salt.