Return to Glorious Revolution (thing)

The 'Glorious Revolution' (1688)
The unexpected birth of an heir to the throne ([James III]) brought about the threat of a permanent [Catholic] dynasty for England. [whig|Whigs] and [Tory|Tories] summoned [William of Orange|William III of Orange] ('For the [Protestant] faith and a free parliament'). In [1688], the Glorious Revolution followed a bloodless course with the flight of [James II] to [France]. The campaign of William III against the Catholic '[Jacobite|Jacobites]' in [Ireland] culminated in [1690] at the [Battle of the Boyne] and the capitulation of [Limerick] ([1692]).

For [England], the significance of this short struggle was two-fold. First, the right of parliamentary [approbation] was granted to the [gentry] and the city by the [1689] [Declaration of Rights] (approval of taxation, freedom of speech, no standing army). To secure the personal liberty and property of the citizens, [John Locke] provided the theoretical justification for the division of the powers of the state into the legislative and executive branches in his [Two Treatises of Government] ([1689]). The second significant outcome for England was its rise to the position of leading commercial and financial power of the world - the [Bank of England] being established in [1694].

Europe watched as the [constitutional monarchy] began to replace [absolutism] as a form of government. French [hegemonic] policies countered with the principle of the [balance of power] - resulting in war between France and England ([1689]-[1697]).

The world over, rivalry on the seas was decided in favour of England (in [Personal Union] with [Holland] until [1702]). Anglo-French [dualism] in colonial affairs also developed worldwide.