in Latin, words in the Vocative case are used to express direct address. They predominantly carry the same endings as the Nominative case.

For Example:
English: "come, o Julius!"
Latin: "veni, o Julie!"

English: "Hello, little boy."
Latin: "Salve, parve puer."

A dead giveaway (just as in greek) that a word is in the vocative case: it will usually be directly proceeded by an 'o'. (aptly translated "oh")...

In Latin, the Vocative case uses the endings:
      Sing  Plur
1Dec  -a    -ae
2Dec  -e    -i
3Dec  -*    -es
4Dec  -us   -us
5Dec  -es   -es

* - Third Declension singular Nouns can have almost any ending in the Vocative Case. You Just have to memorize them. Tough beans.

back to Latin...