Passed on November 29, 1990. The vote was 12-2, with Cuba and Yemen being opposed. China abstained from voting. UNSCR 678 called for Iraq to comply with Resolution 660. A deadline of January 15, 1991 was set for Iraq to be totally compliant. If Iraq did not comply, other UN nations supporting Kuwait can impose Resolution 660 upon Iraq using any means necessary for enforcement. Nations participating in this enforcement were required to inform the UN Security Council of their actions and their outcomes.

Iraq's non-compliance to Resolution 678 is what triggered the Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) between the United States and Iraq.