This is a specialisation of the Polygraph test.

The participant, generally the suspect in a crime where details have been withheld from the general public, is hooked up to a Polygraph and asked questions that only the perpetrator of that crime would know the answers to.

In theory this will stimulate physiological arousal in the participant, because they know the details. (Some arousal is always associated with recognition of facts.) However, it is a statistical fact that Polygraphs are wrong 30% of the time.