This mistake is very common when listening to vinyls. The error can provide a great deal of embarrassment depending on the time it takes you to notice it, and the amount of people present.

There are also lots of 12"s with different RPM on each side. With those, the screw-up is very easy to make.

But at least in minimal or experimental electronic music, a record can in some cases work just as well or even better at the wrong speed. Especially the works of Wolfgang Voigt can provide surprising results this way.
In some instances, the wrong RPM is deliberately printed on the label for this reason. (I recall this being done by Voigt on Profan.)