Werner Karl Heisenberg, German theoretical physicist. Studied physics under Max Born and David Hilbert

At the age of 23 (!) he published the paper on the theory of quantum mechanics, for which he was rewarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932. He was one of the first to realize that mechanical properties on the atom level should be regarded mathematically as matrices, not ordinary numbers. 

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
-- Nobel Prize motivation

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source: http://www.nobel.se