These are often done in hospitals and other healthcare facilities when the patient or resident cannot get out of bed to take a bath or shower. Soap is applied to a wet washcloth to wash the body and is then rinsed after the washcloth is rinsed out in a tub of water. This procedure is repeated for the entire body. Several washcloths must be used to prevent the spread of bacteria, especially when providing perineal care. The hair is usually washed with a leave-in shampoo. Also, hair is brushed, teeth brushed, fingernails cleaned, and the face shaved, if necessary. A backrub may also be done while appling lotion to the back.