Antifreeze proteins are found in some fish, insects and plants. They bind to ice crystals and prevent them from growing to a size where they would damage the host.


Specific hydrogen bonds form on the surface where protein meets ice and inhibits crystal growth. Also noted, the antifreeze molecules accumulate at the interface between ice and water, not at the interface between ice and a vacuum. So an hypothesis is that a hydrophobic reaction between the protein and the neighboring water prevents the water from forming ice crystals.