(1898-1979) German-American Hegelian-Freudian-Marxist philosopher and "Father of the New Left." Marcuse argued that Marxian thought had degenerated into rigid orthodoxy and called for a Marxism in step in the times -- that is, one suited to modern world, not 19th century capitalism. He also was concerned with the neglect given to the individual in Marxian thought, and so was concerned with individual as well as societal liberation throughout his life.

Marcuse denounced the "happy consciousness" -- a false consciousness -- that crass consumerism engendered, and thought modern industrial society "bought off" the potential opposition through this gratification of "false needs", rendering revolutionary change nigh impossible.

It was also Marcuse's 1958 work, Soviet Marxism, that broke many taboos against speaking critically of the USSR. He pointed to potential "liberalizing trends" in the USSR which, as we know, manifested as reforms in the Gorbachev era.

Because of Marcuse's opposition to both the Soviet and Western systems and his criticism of consumerism, he was embraced by the New Left.

Major Works:
Eros and Civilization, 1955
One-Dimensional Man, 1964
Counterrevolution and Revolt, 1972
Studies in Critical Philosophy, 1972