Peng De-huai

A general in the Red Army, Peng led the only non-guerilla battle fought by the Communists during WWII in 1940. The operation was a failure with heavy losses.
Criticized the Great Leap Forward for wasting resources and manpower in 1959. Mao took it as a personal attack and replaced him as Defense Minister with Lin Biao.
Peng became a symbol of party revisionists when he headed a “cultural revolution group” in 1965, appointed by Mao. After he lost control of this group, it snowballed into the Cultural Revolution.