Sufi mystics were the Muslim equivalent of Buddhist and Hindu ascetics of India and were the main source of religious vitality during the decline of the Abbasid Dynasty. Sufis were wanderers, and the main cause of Islamic conversions in India. Their goal - to find Allah in this world.

Sufis believed that there was a clear distinction between Allah and humans. They tried to find Allah in the world of the living. They used asceticism, self-mortification, meditation, chants, drugs, or frenzied dancing. Those that turned to dancing are more commonly known as dervishes.

In India, Sufis drew many Buddhists and outcaste Hindus to Islam. Due to corruption of Buddhism and chaos caused by the Muslim invasions, many Buddhists turned to the vibrant new faith. Sufis had a reputation for magical powers and working miracles. Their similarity to Hindu gurus in their teachings also attracted followers. Sufi mystics, in their search for Allah, brought Islam the ends of the Caliphates.