Retrobulbar micturalgia is a fake symptom that some doctors have used to detect positive review of systems syndrome (PRoSS), AKA pan positive review of systems -- that is, a person who simply responds yes whenever you ask if they experience a symptom.
Retrobulbar micturalgia is not actually an official part of any formal review of systems, but some doctors report using it; undoubtedly other doctors have other tricks. It is medical speak for 'feeling pain behind the eyeballs when urinating'. This is not something that should ever happen, so if your patient says that they experience this they are just collecting all the symptoms you suggest. This is a sign that the actual problem is at least in part psychological.
It is impossible to know how many doctors actually use this trick, either in this form or using some other incomprehensible medical terminology; I suspect that in most cases doctors are happy to take a full set of positive responses to the standard questions as evidence of PRoSS. In any case, retrobulbar micturalgia has become a fairly well known medical meme, and has appeared on any number of sites, so it is no longer likely to be an effective screening question for the serious and well-read hypochondriac.