This is part of the Medieval European History Metanode.

The Third Crusade was also known as "The Kings' Crusade." It lasted from 1189 to 1192. In 1182, most of the Holy Land that remained in Christian hands had fallen to the Turk Saladin. Pope Urban III died soon after receiving the news, some say because of grief. His successor, Pope Gregory VIII, issued a bull appealing to the kings of Europe to go on yet another Crusade. Frederick Barbarossa's German army was the first to arrive. His army had some minor successes, but he drowned while attempting to cross a river on 10 July 1190 (that's why you don't wear armor when swimming!) That was the end of the German presence on this Crusade; the kings of France and England took over. Richard the Lionhearted of England and Philip Augustus of France both took rival armies to the Holy Land. In the end, Saladin signed a treaty that said that Jerusalem would remain in Moslem hands, but Christians could make pilgrimages there. The armies did manage to take Cyprus, which was a rather large feat in itself.