Necrotoxin is one of the many toxin
s that have been found in the venom
of various animals. Most necrotoxic venoms are found in spiders
. The most common spider venom containing necrotoxin is that of Loxosceles Reclusa
. This spider is commonly known as the Brown Recluse
Spider, the Fiddle Back Spider, and the Violin Spider. These spiders are found in the Southern to Central United States
. There are also other species of Loxosceles that can be found around the world. Snake bites
, while more likely to contain Neurotoxin, are more commonly associated with venom than spider bites. Neurotoxin attacks the nervous system whereas Necrotoxin actually eats
away at the soft tissue of the body. The condition caused by the toxin is called necrotizing fasciitis
. This condition can range from small lesions to large sections of the body that are slowly being destroyed by the venom. The venom from the spider exerts cytotoxic
effects that lead to cell death and dermatanecrosis
. The dermatanecrosis is chiefly caused by the enzyme sphingomyelinase D
. This enzyme is the "active ingredient"
in the necrotoxin. The toxin can be very deadly.
The extent of the damage caused by it varies greatly depending on the weight
of an individual, general health, amount of venom injected, the area that has been envenomed, and the number of previous bites
. Although there is no standard treatment for necrotoxin, several methods have been developed. The treatment that most doctors are in favor of is surgery to remove the toxin and the affected areas. Another form of treatment is Hyperbaric
Oxygen Treatment (HBO) but this has yet to be a proven cure. The HBO treatment does show promise though, and has shortened healing time for many victims.