This is the basic physics you are taught in high school. Newtonian physics, also called classical physics or classical mechanics, generally refers to the known physics pre-relativity and pre-quantum mechanics (pre-Einstein, if you will).It is reductionist, asserting that all physical reality can be reduced to forces and laws acting among a few particles.

Some of the essential pieces of it are:

Lots of fun things like hydrostatics and fluid dynamics also have their place here.