Taken from my own lab: using cited information not cited here.
The effects of aerobic exercise
and conditioning are thus:
is defined as having worked out aerobically for the past 2 months, at least 3-4 times weekly (definition loosely based).
, the cardiovascular system
increases its ability to deliver oxygen
, which can also utilize oxygen more easily. This is because with long-term training, capillary density
in muscles increases allowing a greater extraction
of oxygen from blood. Conditioning is also marked with an increase of capillary
density in the muscles, an increase of mitochondria
in muscle cells, and an increase in left ventricular volume
Overall, aerobic exercise
increases the body’s cardiovascular endurance and efficiency so that the lungs and heart can, with less exertion
exchange more air and pump more blood, therefore increasing the efficiency
of the system. The pumping effectiveness
of the heart is actually 40 to 50 percent greater in a conditioned person so that the heart can pump more blood with fewer heartbeats. Trained athletes
also have a lower resting heart rate and greater stroke volume.