The Appalachians feature rounded, tree-topped peaks and isolated green humid valleys often called 'hollows,' or 'hollers' in the local dialect. Major mountain groups within the Appalachian chain are the Smokey Mountains in Tennessee, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, the Green Mountains in Vermont, and the Adirondacs in New York.

A large region of the Appalachians, stretching from the Carolinas through Eastern Pennsylvania, is known for its unique geographic and cultural characteristics, and is often referred to as Appalachia, where a full discussion is available.