The Lyncean Academy (Accademia dei Lincei) is an institution founded by Italian scientist Federico Cesi in 1603. The foundation and goals as described by the Academy were:
"not only to acquire knowledge of things and wisdom, and living together justly and piously, but also peacefully to display them to men, orally and in writing, without any harm." (1605)

The name of the Academy comes from Lynceus, the argonaut of Greek mythology, renowned for his sharpness of sight. The initial members of the Academy were:

The initial members lived communally in Cesi's house. Cesi's father, Federico Cesi Sr., the influential Marquis of Monticello and Duke of Acquasparta was opposed to the ideas of the Academy, but Cesi obtained financial and moral support from his mother, who was family to a rich Roman family. At its height, the Lyncean Academy counted 32 members.

The most famous member of the Lyncean Academy was Galileo Galilei, who was inducted in 1611. Several of Galileo's publications were supported by the Academy, such as Letters on Sunspots (1613) and Assayer (1623).

Galileo's publication of Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems) was also going to be supported by the Lyncean Academy. However, Cesi died in abruptly in 1630, and with his death the Lyncean Academy was terminated. Since Galilei could no longer count on an organized scientific support, this led to increasing difficulties with the Church.

Dava Sobel, Galileo's Daughter, A Historical Memoir of Science, Faith and Love, New York: Walker & Company, 1999