In terms of archaeology or environmental science, typology is concerned with deducing the relative age of a subject (such as the evolution of pottery, jewellery or weapon styles in the former case, or similar rock structures and biological similarities in the latter) by comparing features with similar samples and inferring the general chronological point (i.e. without applying specific dates) at which the object was created or the event occurred. This is not usually a very accurate method, as anomalous objects are often found (foreign imports, for instance) - correlations drawn (in both disciplines) are usually substantiated with other dating methods before being considered reliable evidence.

See also:
- Stratigraphy
- Radio-carbon dating
- Dendrochronology
- Thermoluminescence
- Radiometric dating and
- Ice cores
- ...To name but a few.