Return to Pentagram (thing)

It's an old [symbol], the pentagram, this [star]-shaped figure of the [diagonal|diagonals] between the corners of a [pentagon], at least it's very old compared to other symbols of similar complexity.

The oldest findings of it are from about 4000 B.C. in [Palestine]. It was a common symbol with the [Sumer|Sumerians] from about 2700 B.C. The similar symbol, which by the way is much simpler to draw, the [hexagram], is not found until about 800 B.C.

The probable reason for the earlier occurrence of the pentagram, is that it is a discovered symbol, in contrast to the hexagram, which is invented.

The form of the pentagram is constructed from the movement of the [planet] [Venus] on the [ecliptic]. Here's [how]:

Since Venus is closer to the [Sun] than the [Earth], it will never come more than 48 degrees away from the Sun on the ecliptic. This means it will only be seen either early in the morning right before [sunrise], then often called the Morning Star, or in the evening just after [sunset], as the Evening Star.

The periods in which it is seen have a very regular pattern, unlike those of any of the other planets. Venus is visible as the Evening Star for 247 days. Then it moves in front of the Sun for 14 days, before it again shows itself as the Morning Star for 245 new days. Then it disappears behind the Sun for 78 days and comes forth as the Evening Star again.

If you take the [point] on the [Zodiac] where the planet first shows itself as e.g. a Morning Star, then draw a [line] to the next point where it again comes forth as a Morning Star 584 days later, and repeat this until the sixth time, the last point will be nearly exactly at the first position. And the lines will form a beautiful pentagram. The [time] it takes for Venus to finish this cycle, is one or two days less than eight years.

Since the endpoints of the pentagram doesn't completely meet, the whole star rotates one degree every fourth year, in relation to the Zodiac. In 1460 years the pentagram completes one whole rotation. This was called a Sothis-year by the [Egyptians], [Sothis] being the Egyptian goddess to which the planet Venus was ascribed.

The Central American [Civilization|civilizations] were aware of the cycles of Venus. Both the [Maya] and the [Aztec|Aztecs] used the planet's motion to establish both their [Mayan Calendar|calendars] and their [cosmogony].

The period between two first occurrences of Venus at the same point in the Zodiac, without regarding if it's in the morning or in the evening, is 1460 days, which is almost exactly four years, coinciding with the period between the ancient [Greek] and the modern [Olympic Games]. The [five] rings in the symbol for the Olympic Games, together with it's four year period, show the connection between Venus and the Olympic Games. In modern times this [connection] was evident in the [logo] of the [1984] [Olympic Games] in [Los Angeles, California|Los Angeles] which mainly consisted of a five pointed star.