There are a number of tunes entitled "Stagger Lee" which have been recorded over the years. They all derive from a series of tales and songs in African-American folklore. See Tony Kullen's essay, Stagger Lee: A Historical Look at the Urban Legend for a detailed look at the topic.

Blair Jackson, in his magazine "Golden Road" said this about "Stagger Lee":

""Stagger Lee," who pops on the Shakedown album is a fabled character who some suggest dates back to the Civil War. Variously called "Stag-O-Lee," "Stack-O-Lee," and other names, the song is about a scoundrel who killed Billy Lyons because he stole Stag's Stetson hat. Stag-O-Lee was upset about the death, though--because he failed to shoot Billy right between the eyes. Songwriters over the years have elaborated on the story, bringing in the bad man's deals with the devil, etc. It's been recorded often, by everyone from Mississippi John Hurt (his 1928 version is one of the first on record) to Professor Longhair and Doc and Merle Watson."

Here's a partial list of other "Stagger Lee"'s, in alphabetical order by performer:

Archibald: Imperial X5358.
Bechet, Sidney: "Old Stack O'Lee Blues" on The best of Sidney Bechet (Blue Note, CDP 7243 8 28891 2 0, 1994)
Bookbinder, Roy: "Stack O Lee" on Ragtime millionaire (Yellow Bee Productions, 5BG-2023, 1977)
Brozman, Bob: "Stack o Lee Aloha" on A truckload of blues (Rounder, CD 3119, 1992)
Calloway, Cab: "Stack O' Lee Blues" on Cab Calloway and His Orchestra, 1931-1932 (Classics 526, 1990)
Clayton, Paul: Bloody Ballads. Riverside RLP 12-615. Dodds, Johnny: "Stack O'Lee Blues" on side B of "Melancholy" (Decca, 1676, 1938)
Domino, Fats: "Stack & Billy" on Let's play (Imperial, LP-9065, 196?)
Dylan, Bob: "Stack a Lee" on World gone wrong (Columbia, CK 57590, 1993)
Edwards, Cliff: "Stack O' Lee, Part 1" and "Stack O' Lee, Part 2" (ca. 1924) on I'm a bear in a lady's boudoir (Yazoo, L-1047, 1975)
English, Logan: Riverside 12-643.
Fuller, Jesse: "Stagolee" on Jazz, Folk Songs, Spirituals and Blues (Original Blues Classics, 2530 564 2, 1958)
The Green Mountain Boys: "Stagolee" on The Green Mountain Boys (Green Mountain Records, GMS 1053, 197?)
Guthrie, Woody: "Stagolee" on Bound For Glory (Smithsonian/Folkways Records, 02481, 1992, originally recorded 1956)
Houston, Cisco: "Stagolee" on Hard traveling (Folkways, FA 2042, 1954)
Hull, Papa Harvey, Long "Cleve" Reed, and the Down Home Boys: "Original Stack O'Lee Blues" (ca. 1927) on The Songster tradition: complete recorded works in chronological order (1927-1935) (Document Records, DOCD-5045, 1991)
Hurt, Mississippi John: "Stack O' Lee Blues" on 1928 sessions (Yazoo, 1065, 1990)
Hutchinson, Frank: on American Folk Music, vol. 1: Ballads. (Folkways, FP 251, 1927)
Johnson, Tex: "Stack o Lee" on Gunfighter ballads (Promenade, 2239, 1961)
Lester, Julius: "Stagolee" on Julius Lester accompanying himself on the guitar (Vanguard, VRS-9199, 1965)
Lewis, Furry: "Billy Lyons and Stack O'Lee" on Furry Lewis (1927-1929): complete recorded works in chronological order (Document Records, DOCD-5004, 1990) Recording also includes "Kassie Jones part 1 and 2.
Lomax, Alan (compiler): "Stackerlee," by an unknown performer on Negro prison songs from the Mississippi State Penitentiary (Tradition, TLP 1020, 195?) "Recorded by Alan Lomax in 1947 at the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, Mississippi"
Lomax, Alan: Listen to Our Story. BR-1024.
McCurdy, Ed: Elektra 108.
Memphis Slim: "Stack Alee" on Broken soul blues (United Artists, UAL3137, 1961)
New Lost City Ramblers: "Stackerlee" on The New Lost City Ramblers (Folkways Records, FA 2399, 1962)
Noble, Ray: "Stack O' Lee" (ca. 1935) on Ray Noble and his American Dance Orchestra (Jazz Archives, JA-22, 1975)
Paley, Tom: "Stackerlee" on Old Tom Moore and more (Global Village, C 309, 1991)
Price, Lloyd: "Stagger Lee" by Harold Logan and Lloyd Price (based on traditional material) (1958)
Rainey, Ma: "Stack O'Lee Blues" on Ma Rainey's Black Bottom, and onThe complete Madam Gertrude "Ma" Rainey mastertakes' collection, 1923/28 (King Jazz, KJ-182 FS, 1994)
Senter, Boyd: "Original Stack O'Lee Blues" on Solos and Senterpedes: 1927-1928 (Harlequin, HQ 2044, 1986)
Sol Hoopii's Novelty Trio: "Stack O'Lee Blues" on B side of "Farewell Blues" (Columbia, 797-D, 1926)
Stuart, Alice: "Stackerlee" on All the good times (Arhoolie, F 4002, 1964)
Travis, Merle: "Stack O'Lee" on Rough, Rowdy and Blue CMH, CMH-C-6262, 1986)
Turner, Titus: "Return of Stagolee" (King, 45-5186, 1957?) The Washingtonians (a pseudonym for Duke Ellington and his Orchestra): "Stack O'Lee Blues" on b side of "Red head blues" (Velvet Tone, 1601-V, 1927)
Watson, Doc: "Stack O'Lee" on Ballads from Deep Gap (Vanguard, VMD-6576, 1988)
Wheeler, Mary (compiler): "Stacker Lee" (Bertha Wenzel, Singer; Bill Small, guitar) on Folk songs of the river (Century Custom Recording Service, 20074, ca. 1982)

Thanks to the Annotated Grateful Dead Lyrics for the list of artists who've performed Stagger Lee.