Knowledge of Algebraic Notation or chess notation is helpful in understanding opposition.

Opposition defined:
Opposition is the control of squares between two opposing Kings (Diagram 1). Any patzer can master opposition with time and practice. Although the king is the center of most attacks, you must use the king in the end game to checkmate the other king. The king becomes a valuable tool after most if not all of the heavy pieces have been removed. Until the end game the king is likely kept hidden safely, but in the end game it comes out to finish the chores - there's hardly anyone left to interfer! The 64 squares on the chess board are split into two colors, the most important aspect of opposition. Whomever is moving, in some sort of King position, (if they want to keep the opposition) they will move to the same color of square their opponent did. Likewise if they wish to get rid of the opposition (or at least attempt) they will move to the opposite colored square, though then the next player could move to the same colored square most likely (see Diagram 3 for an example of breaking opposition). Opposition has many uses, controlling the board or certain parts of the board (colors, diaganols, etc.), but most importantly to promote a pawn to a higher piece (usually a Queen), (See Diagram 2 for promoting a pawn without any other interference.) It can also be seen in a Zugzwang, which is German meaning "compulsion to move." The following position shows a great example of three squares where neither king can move into children need magic and stories because of a “magic wall" created by both kings “hatred.” I tell my students opposition is, "King Play," suggesting that while playing chess it is important that, "Kings Don't Kiss."

```
Diagram 1.
King Opposition.
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 8
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |BK |   |   |   | 6
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   | X | X | X |   |   | 5
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |WK |   |   |   | 4
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 3
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 2
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 1
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
A    B   C   D   E   F   G   H

```

WK@e4 Bk@e6. It can go to either sides advantage, or to no gain at all depending on the position. In End Game positions the player with pieces that can checkmate are used along with the king to their advantage by pushing their opponent to the side and then the corner if needed. Checkmating with King and a Knight and Bishop vs King is a great example where it is easiest to use the king to push the other king to the side rather than using the bishops. Possibly my favorite self made chess quote, "You should be scared if your opponant has three bishops." Joke Spoiler: (Each person starts with two bishops. Having a third means they didn't get a queen, but instead chose to get an additional seemingly useless bishop to toy around with)

Promoting a pawn with K, P vs. K by using opposition.
Note that the first rule is that the King always stays in front of the pawn. This magic wall prevents the other King from reaching the pawn. If the King tries to go around the other King, the pawn simply follows the “royal pathway” to promotion and turns into a Queen etc. Take this example: Wp@c2 WK@d1 Bk@c8. The first thing the White king should do is get in front of the pawn. After this, and while keeping opposition in mind he will force their opponents King out of the way slowly for the pawn to reach the end square.

```
Diagram 2.
Promoting the Pawn.
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |BK |   |   |   |   |   | 8
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 6
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 5
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 4
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 3
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |WP |   |   |   |   |   | 2
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |WK |   |   |   |   | 1
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
A    B   C   D   E   F   G   H

```

1. Kd2 Kc7
2. Kc3 Kc6
3. Kc4 Kd6
4. Kb5 Kc7
5. Kc5 Kb7
6. Kd6 Kc8
7. Kc6 Kd8
8. c4 Kc8
9. c5 Kb8
10. Kd7 Kb7
11. c6+ Kb8
12. c7+ Kb7
13 c8=Q+
(Note there are many other variations that will have the same end result, as long as the White King keeps in mind to stay between the opposing King and their own pawn.)

Promoting a pawn with K, P, P vs. K, P - Behind the pawn.
Promoting a pawn from Kp vs K situations and later adding additional pawns to create further complications will help build tactical chess and positional chess playing opposition for players with key ideas. Another preferable example would be: Wk@d5 Wp@d6,a6 BK@d7 Bp@a7.

```

Diagram 3.
Promoting the Pawn,
The Luft Position.
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 8
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|BP |   |   |BK |   |   |   |   | 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|WP |   |   |WP |   |   |   |   | 6
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |WK |   |   |   |   | 5
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 4
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 3
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 2
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 1
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
A    B   C   D   E   F   G   H

```

In this position King Play (opposition) which was previously explained is used to throw off the King on a valuable square. This exact position is a win for white, but white has to work for it. Grandmasters once looked at this position and called it a draw, "The King is behind the pawn." Currently it is white's move, and what white does not want to move, a zugzwang, wanting instead for it to be black's move.
Play:
1.Kc5 Kd8
2. Kd4 Kd7
3. Kd5 Kc8
4. Ke6 Kd8
5. d7 Kc7
6 . Ke7 Kb6
7. d8=Q+
(Note any other variations show the same information, where Black has to give up his ideal opposition square. The opposition breaks on move 2 for black when he has to move to the opposite color white just moved.) This is called Triangulation. Its the tactic that allows the achievement of the same position in three moves but instead of white to move it is now black to move (or vice versa). By maintaining the basic position but changing whose move it is, it breaks the opposition or changes it in some regard. There is another form of triangulation where one king triangulates by using three moves to return to the original square and the opposing king can't do the same, losing a tempo and the opposition.

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