The above write-up fills in a lot I hadn't known and enables me to make sense of what until now had been jumbled lists of duke
s, kings, and elector
Electors of Saxony
- Friedrich I, the Warlike 1423-1428
He was Margrave Friedrich IV of Meissen; he was awarded the duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg in 1423, a title that conferred the electorate on him.
- Friedrich II, the Gentle 1428-1464
- Ernst 1464-1486
Founder of the Ernestine branch. When Saxony was divided in 1485 he received Saxe-Wittenberg and Thuringia.
- Friedrich III, the Wise 1486-1525
- Johann the Constant 1525-1532
- Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous 1532-1547
Magnanimity served him poorly; he was deprived of the electorate by emperor Charles V.
- Moritz 1547-1553
First of the Albertine branch.
- August 1553-1586
- Christian I 1586-1591
- Christian II 1591-1611
- Johann Georg I 1611-1656
- Johann Georg II 1656-1680
- Johann Georg III 1680-1691
- Johann Georg IV 1691-1694
- Friedrich August I the Strong 1694-1733
- Friedrich August II 1733-1763
- Friedrich Christian 1763
- Friedrich August III 1763-1806(-1827)
Elevated to King of Saxony in December 1806.
Kings of Saxony
- Friedrich August I (1763-)1806-1827
Also Duke of Warsaw 1807-1813.
- Anton 1827-1836
- Friedrich August II 1836-1854
Co-regent from 1830.
- Johann 1854-1873
- Albrecht 1873-1902
- Georg 1902-1904
- Friedrich August III 1902-1918
Swept away up by the republic November 1918.
Dukes of Saxony
- Albrecht the Bold 1464-1500
Awarded Meissen and Osterland on the division of Saxony in 1485. Evidently he and his immediate heirs bore the title of Duke of Saxony, until they became Electors. But I don't know what the situation was between 1464 and 1485.
- Georg the Bearded 1500-1539
- Heinrich the Pious 1539-1541
- Moritz 1541-1547(-1553)
Became Elector of Saxony in 1547.
The Upper Saxon duchies
that survived to the end were the following four. Their capitals were respectively Weimar, Meiningen, Coburg
, and Altenburg
Dukes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
- Ernst August I 1741-1748
- Ernst August II 1748-1758
- Carl August 1758-1815(-1828)
Elevated to Grand Duke in 1815.
Grand Dukes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
- Carl August (1758-)1815-1828
- Carl Friedrich 1828-1853
- Carl Alexander 1853-1901
- Wilhelm Ernst 1901-1918
Dukes of Saxe-Meiningen(-Hildburghausen)
- Carl and Georg I 1763-1782
- Georg I alone 1782-1803
- Bernhard II 1803-1866
Don't ask me what bits Bernhard I was duke of.
- Georg II 1866-1914
- Bernhard III 1914-1918
Dukes of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
- Ernst I 1806-1844
- Ernst II 1844-1893
- Alfred 1893-1900
Son of Victoria and Albert.
- Karl Eduard 1900-1918
Dukes of Saxe-Altenburg
- Friedrich 1826-1834
- Joseph 1834-1848
- Georg 1848-1853
- Ernst I 1853-1908
- Ernst II 1908-1918
The former kingdom of Saxony was a state of the republic of Germany from 1918 to 1945. Between 1945 and 1952 East Germany
had two states Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt
. This level of government was then abolished, but it was these post-War states that were restored after the Berlin Wall
fell, and which were admitted as Länder
to the Federal Republic in 1990. The capital of Saxony-Anhalt is Halle
I have not covered places such as Thuringia, Oldenburg, and so on, which should be sought in their own place. (But they're not there yet.)