287 B.C.E. - 212 B.C.E.

Greek mathematician, physicist, and inventor from Syracuse, Sicily. He worked as court scientist for king/tyrant Hiero II.

He studied in Alexandria, Egypt under Conon of Samos who was himself a student of Euclid.

He invented the Archimedean Screw, pulleys, worked on hydrostatics, and determined many important geometric formulae including the area of a sphere, pi, and many more.

Very famous for running around naked shouting "eureka!" after discovering Archimedes' Principle, which is named after him.

He won the Second Punic War for Syracuse with catapults, cranes using compound pulleys to lift boats up and drop them into the water or slam them into rocks (seriously!), and (though this one is disputed) concave mirrors to direct intense light at enemy ships and burn them.
I say he won the war, but actually his side lost to the Romans. It wasn't his fault though. They thought they had pretty much won but with a surprise night attack the Romans captured the city.
The Roman leader, Marcellus said "don't kill Archimedes" but a Roman soldier did anyway. :-(

He did not bathe very often at all. He was always busy doing geometry and stuff that his servants always had to bug him to take one (I have the same problem, but I don't have servants.) He also often forgot to eat.

"Give me a lever long enough and a fulcrum on which to place it, and I shall move the world." -- Archimedes, Pappus of Alexandria