Karen Horney (pronounced horn-eye). 1885-1952

Psychiatrist credited with developing a social and cultural psychoanalysis theory.

She entered medical school in Freiburg, Germany in 1906 and helped form the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute, of which she remained a member from 1918 to 1932. During this time, she spoke out against the limitations of orthodox psychoanalysis, believing that Freud placed too much stress on sexual instincts in the development of neurosis and not enough emphasis on the social and cultural conditions which foster pathology.

Horney reinterpreted many of Freud's theories, including his libido theory, his theory of psychosexual development and his theory of therapy and published her works in the following books listed in chronological order: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time (1937), New Ways in Psychoanalysis (1939), Self-Analysis (1942), Our Inner Conflicts (1945), Neurosis and Human Growth (1950), and the posthumous Feminine Psychology (1967).