Concerning The Way In Which The Strength Of All Principalities Ought To Be Measured
It is necessary to consider another point in examining the character of these principalities: that is, whether a prince has such power
that, in case of need, he can support himself with his own resources, or whether he has always need of the assistance of others. And to
make this quite clear I say that I consider those are able to support themselves by their own resources who can, either by abundance of
men or money, raise a sufficient army to join battle against any one who comes to attack them; and I consider those always to have
need of others who cannot show themselves against the enemy in the field, but are forced to defend themselves by sheltering behind
walls. The first case has been discussed, but we will speak of it again should it recur. In the second case one can say nothing except to
encourage such princes to provision and fortify their towns, and not on any account to defend the country. And whoever shall fortify
his town well, and shall have managed the other concerns of his subjects in the way stated above, and to be often repeated, will never
be attacked without great caution, for men are always adverse to enterprises where difficulties can be seen, and it will be seen not to be
an easy thing to attack one who has his town well fortified, and is not hated by his people.
The cities of Germany are absolutely free, they own but little country around them, and they yield obedience to the emperor when it
suits them, nor do they fear this or any other power they may have near them, because they are fortified in such a way that every one
thinks the taking of them by assault would be tedious and difficult, seeing they have proper ditches and walls, they have sufficient
artillery, and they always keep in public depots enough for one year's eating, drinking, and firing. And beyond this, to keep the people
quiet and without loss to the state, they always have the means of giving work to the community in those labours that are the life and
strength of the city, and on the pursuit of which the people are supported; they also hold military exercises in repute, and moreover
have many ordinances to uphold them.
Therefore, a prince who has a strong city, and had not made himself odious, will not be attacked, or if any one should attack he will
only be driven off with disgrace; again, because that affairs of this world are so changeable, it is almost impossible to keep an army a
whole year in the field without being interfered with. And whoever should reply: If the people have property outside the city, and see
it burnt, they will not remain patient, and the long siege and self-interest will make them forget their prince; to this I answer that a
powerful and courageous prince will overcome all such difficulties by giving at one time hope to his subjects that the evil will not be
for long, at another time fear of the cruelty of the enemy, then preserving himself adroitly from those subjects who seem to him to be
Further, the enemy would naturally on his arrival at once burn and ruin the country at the time when the spirits of the people are still
hot and ready for the defence; and, therefore, so much the less ought the prince to hesitate; because after a time, when spirits have
cooled, the damage is already done, the ills are incurred, and there is no longer any remedy; and therefore they are so much the more
ready to unite with their prince, he appearing to be under obligations to them now that their houses have been burnt and their
possessions ruined in his defence. For it is the nature of men to be bound by the benefits they confer as much as by those they receive.
Therefore, if everything is well considered, it wilt not be difficult for a wise prince to keep the minds of his citizens steadfast from
first to last, when he does not fail to support and defend them.
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