In chess, the highest hierarchical title awarded. The Grandmaster (GM) title is awarded to a player who achieves two 'Grandmaster Norms' - tournament performances of a standard expected of a Grandmaster - and achieves an ELO rating higher than 2500. Tournament performances are calculated on the basis of the ELO rating of opponents and number of points scored.
In the late 20th century, the standard of chess has continued to rise, and there has been talk for a while of creating a 'Super-Grandmaster' title for players above 2600 ELO, since there is now a growing gap between the top players in the world and 'ordinary' Grandmasters. Some people were also beginning to suggest that a special category should be created for Garry Kasparov, the only player ever to have an ELO rating of higher than 2800, due to his clear domination of his contemporaries for 15 years. However, his recent loss of the PCA world title to Vladimir Kramnik has removed some of his aura of invincibility.
Other titles awarded in chess include:
IM (International Master)
FM (Fide Master)
WGM (Women's Grandmaster)
WIM (Women's International Master)