Chuck is African-American, in the literal sense of the word. He was born in Tanzania. His parents were born in Tanzania. Their parents were born in Tanzania. That pattern went all the way back to the British colonization of Tanzania.
Chuck is white. He was part of that 1% of Tanzania's population that lived in opulence. The 1% of the country that some people like to forget about, and some people like to pretend is the whole country.
When he was 6, his family moved to New York. They've lived there since, and Chuck became an American citizen.
Chuck is African. He is proud of his Tanzanian background, he returns home whenever he can - and Tanzania still is his home.
Chuck is American. He's lived in New York for most of his life. He speaks English without much of a discernable accent to my Torontonian ear.
Chuck is African American but not black.