The Celiac artery (also called the celiac trunk) is a branch of the abdominal aorta. It is the first and most superior of the three arteries that supply the gastrointestinal tract:

The celiac artery travels only about an inch (3cm) before splitting into the gastric artery, the hepatic artery, and the splenic artery.

The splenic artery supplies blood to the abdominal portion of the esophagus, the top portions of the stomach and pancreas, the liver, spleen, and the first portion (approximately half) of the duodenum.

Stenosis (narrowing) of this artery decreases blood flow to these structures, and can cause abdominal angina. Blockage of the artery causes mesenteric ischemia and can result in death.