The Cognitive Science Society was founded in Massachusetts in 1979 as a forum for researchers in the field of cognitive science to come together and discuss problems and research in the various disciplines that make up cognitive science.

The CSS is made up of anthropologists, computer scientists, educators, linguists, neurobiologists, philosophers, and psychologists, to name a few. The society currently contains approximately 1000 members, with membership coming from countries around the world.

The CSS is responsible for the annual COGSCI conference, as well as publishing the bimonthly Cognitive Science journal.