Active Principles: A variety of indole
and oxyindole alkaloids
, most notably mitragynine.
The Kratom tree is native to Thailand, and its leaves have been used by peasants there since time out of mind. These people primarily use kratom because it motivates them and makes long hours of tedious work in the fields seem worthwhile and interesting. Scientific studies regarding the use of kratom by these villagers and peasants tend to contradict each other, so it is hard to be sure of the nature of their relationship with kratom; some studies claim that the majority of the users are addicted, while others claim to have found no significant risk of addiction.
At any rate, the users of kratom are much more motivated to work than those who do not use it. Interestingly, the average kratom user is older, with studies indicating that most users start using kratom in their 30's or 40's. This would indicate that the users are probably looking for something to replace the faded energy of their youth, and one can hardly condemn them for finding a replacement that works for them.
But condemn them is exactly what the Thai government did, passing the Kratom Act 2486 in 1943. With the passing of this law, it became illegal to plant kratom trees, and existing trees were to be cut down. However, since the kratom tree is native to Thailand, this law was not very effective. Today, the Thai government considers kratom to be in the same class as cocaine and heroin. The possesion of an ounce of extract is punishable by death. As a result, kratom use and research has migrated out of Thailand, and it can now be purchased readily over the internet.
Modern users of kratom come from all over the world
, and cover pretty much every major demographic
. There are three main effects which may be sought by users of kratom:
Motivation/Stimulation: This is the effect which is sought traditionally by Thai eaters of the plant. It is achieved by consuming a relatively small amount of pant matter and seems to occur more frequently when the leaves are either smoked or chewed. The state of energetic motivation has been compared to methamphetamine, although there seems to be no debilitating crash associated with kratom.
Opiate-like Effects: The most common contemporary use of kratom is to drink a tea made from 3 to 12 grams of leaf as a means of achieving effects very simlar to the classic opiate experience. Some users mix red poppy, blue lotus, or sinicuichi into the tea to enhance the experience. In this way, some people have been able to achieve an opiate-like waking dream experience, in which they see dream images while they reamin awake.
Opiate Addiction Treatment: Ironically, although it is used by some as an opium substitute, kratom is one of the most effective cures for opiate addiction know to man. This is probably because the primary active principle, mitragynine, acts on many of the same receptors that opiates do. One has to be careful when using kratom for this purpose, however, as too large a dose of kratom will cause crossover to the mu receptor, which will perpetuate the addiction rather than allay it.
Methods of Consumption
Kratom can be ingested in a variety of ways:
Teas and liquid ethanolic extracts: Anywhere from 3 to 12 grams of leaf can be brewed into a tea. Usually the leaves are steeped in a pot of boiling water, then the resulting liquid is boiled down until there is only about a cup of liquid remaining, and this is drunk. This method is very simple, but since mitragynine is only slightly soluble in water, some people have begun steeping the leaves overnight in an mixture of water and alcohol, then boiling this down (at a low temperature so as not to ignite the alcohol), and drinking it. Red poppy or sinicuichi are often added to the tea or drunk seperately to mellow the experience, making it less manic and more euphoric.
Smoking: A pinch or two of kratom smoked in a tobacco pipe has effects similar to a kratom tea, although it tends more towards the energetic and motivated experience. Some people utilize the energy for a while, and the drink a cup of red poppy tea when they are ready for the experience ot become more mellow and opiate-like.
Chewing or Quidding: This is the manner in which Thai natives consumed the plant. Dosage for quidding is about the same as for making a tea. Due to concerns over the cleanliness of leaves imported from eastern Asia, as well as the possibility of bacteria, most people who use this method prefer to first boil a tea from the leaves before chewing them. This serves not only to sanitze the leaves, but also make them more palatable by extracting some of the flavor.
Resin eating: The least common method of kratom consumption is to extract the resin from the leaves and eat it. This method is mostly for those who cannot stomach the taste of kratom tea. To extract the resin, begin as though you were making a tea (preferably using a solution of water and alcohol), but rather than boiling the liquid down until only a cup remains, keep boiling it until there is just a sticky blackish residue. This can be scraped up, rolled into a ball, and eaten. To make it easier on youself, you may want to boil the liquid down in a pyrex dish.
First and foremost, because there is the potential for addiction, one has to be careful in the use of this plant. If you plan on using larger doses, require yourself to allow at least two days between uses. With smaller doses there is no chance of physical habituation, but this does not necessarily mean that you should use kratom on a daily basis. Be aware of your personal potential for psychological addiction, and most importantly, use common sense. As with all psychoactives, do not drive or operate heavy machinery under the influence of kratom.
Kratom is a rare gem, a psychoactive substance which can be used readily for pleasure or personal growth, but still remains legal throughout the world (with the exception of in Thailand, Myanmar, and Australia). Please help keep it this way.
The Merck Index
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