The process of learning to accurately determine the parameters of a musical sound. For example, the ability to determine the pitch (whether relative or absolute), the rhythmic position, length, timbre, or harmonic construction of a sound.

The term is not really correct since it has nothing to do with the ear. It is the teaching of a set of skills.

Often considered to be a form of torture by music students. However, as with all things, there is a right way and a wrong way to approach this. If you attempt to teach this incorrectly, it will be both difficult and unfruitful. When taught correctly, it is relatively straightforward and quite effective.