, the term used to describe the replacing of a pawn
with a piece of a higher value (Queen
, or Rook
may be substituted) once it reaches the final rank of the chessboard
For example, a player may add a second queen, or replace one lost earlier. Although the queen is generally the piece of choice, special circumstances may rarely call for a different piece (for example, if you wish to avoid stalemating your opponent upon promotion).
Pawn promotion is the driving force of the endgame in chess; when a pawn is 'queened' its owner will almost always gain a strong, if not decisive, upper hand in play.