grammar, one of the three grade
s of the verb stem. The zero grade
is shortest, guna
is of middle length, and vrddhi
is the longest form of the stem vowel.
Short a becomes long â in vrddhi, i becomes ai (with intermediate guna e), and u becomes au (with guna o). The syllabic consonants r and l acquire a long â.
The name comes from the root vrdh, meaning grow.