Static hashing is a simple form of hashing, where hashing is the use of mathematical functions to sort incoming data in a speedy, and organized fashion. Hashing involves a hashing function, which accepts a piece of incoming data and assigns to that data a specific value; based on that value, the data is stored away in a table.
Static hashing is a simple form of hashing often used for a temporary solution (until a better form of hashing, such as linear hashing or extendible hashing can be used); its big advantage is its relative simplicity compared to other types of hashing.
Static hashing is called such because the number of buckets is static, meaning that the number is determined first and remains constant throughout the assembly and use of the hash. Let's take a look at a static hash:
(incoming data)


(hash function) (assigns value between 0 and N1)

 (hash value and original data are
 sorted into buckets based on hash
 value)

 
 0  1  2  ...  N1  (labelled with hash value)
 

 (some buckets might overflow and need overflow pages)


 

Basically, a static hash takes incoming data with a particular key element (say, a Social Security number for a piece of data about a person) and passes the key through a hash function of some sort. A simple example of a hash function is H(x) = x mod N; this means that the remainder of x divided by N is what is returned.
Once this hash value has been determined, the whole piece of data is then sorted into a bucket with a number of other data entries with the same hash value. These buckets usually have a static size as well, and they each have overflow buckets in case the first bucket gets full.
When someone wants to locate a particular item, the search information provided is passed through the hash function again, so the search is quickly narrowed down to roughly 1/N of the total pieces of data that might otherwise be searched.
The big flaw in static hashing is the fact that the number of buckets remain static. This means that if all the values tend to produce one particular hash value, all of the data records will go to one bucket, not saving you much time. Other methods of hashing allow for the creation of new buckets on the fly, which can be assigned more specific hash values to break down a clump of data.
Static hashing is a nice "quick fix" for speedy data storage, but there are a lot of flaws with it; it's not recommended for use for serious applications.