To enact vengeance
upon whoever it was that done you wrong
. This action is often taken after one has been pushed too far
and God help them if you have to come out of retirement
to set things right
This usually refers to avenging wrongs done to you indirectly, primarly via harming your loved ones, your partner, or your old war buddy. Sometimes these people were just in the wrong place at the wrong time, but occasionally, they simply got in over their heads.
This is a common theme in action movies. For examples, see: Lethal Weapon, Death Wish, The Evil that Men Do, Rob Roy, Braveheart, and any film starring Sylvester Stallone, Chuck Norris, Steven Seagal, or Arnold Schwarzenegger.