"The 48 Hands"
The kimarite, 手決, are the names of the winning techniques in sumo. Over the years more kimarite has been added to the official list, and there are now 82 kimarite, some of which are very rarely used, but they are there, all the same.
Most kimarite consist of a combination of two or more words, describing the technique: e.g. Yoritaoshi is a combination of ”yori” (pushing the opponent with the body) and ”taoshi” (making opponent fall). Thus Yoritaoshi is when the winner forces the loser out of the ring where the loser falls. (Bodycontact should be maintained all the time, and the winner must have a grip on the loser’s mawashi. If the loser does not fall, it is yorikiri: ”kiri” (pushing opponent out of the dohyo)).
Differences between the kimarite can be minute (to an untrained eye). Oshidashi and Tsukidashi can look alike: the attacker pushes the opponent backwards out of the ring. But "oshi" means the pushes are executed with arms bent, keeping bodycontact all the way, while "tsuki" means both pushing and hitting, arms stretched. "Dashi" is to push the opponent out of the dohyo.
Another "-dashi" is Okuridashi. "Okuri" is pushing on the back, and so Okuridashi is getting behind the opponent and pushing him out of the ring. If the rikishi makes the opponent fall by pushing him from behind, it's Okuritaoshi.
An example of combining three words to describe a winning move can be Shitatedashinage: "shitate" is an under-arm grip, usually in mawashi, "nage" is to throw (Shitatenage is an underarm throw), and in this case "dashi" indicates that the throw is executed without much body contact ("dashinage" is a throw where no main bodyparts are touching).
Of the 82 kimarite, around 20 or 25 are frequently used. In addition to these, there are 5 winning non-techniques. They describe the different ways a sumotori can win a bout, without ”doing anything”. This will happen if the opponent trips and falls, or if he inadvertently steps out of the ring.
More kimarite will be added as they are noded.
Check out the great Kimarite Menu on Grand Sumo Homepage at http://sumo.goo.ne.jp/eng/kimarite/index.html